Tech Tips

Many of these tips have been published in our newsletter or facebook. These are repeated and in some cases expanded in these pages.

What F-Stop Should I Use?Depth of Field Composite

This is one of the most asked questions and is the hardest to answer.
Because each subject should be treated differently and it also depends on how you want your photo to look.

How does it change the look of your photo?
F-stop or aperture changes the way your photo looks because it changes the Depth of Field (how much is in focus either side of your subject)

Some Rules of Thumb

Flat Surfaces - any f-stop will do as the flat surface has no depth.

Landscapes - usually a high f- stop (large Depth of Field) to give lots in focus.

Portrait - usually a low f - stop like f5.6 to give some blurring of the background, isolating the subject

Group Portrait - Medium DoF, f 5.6 - f11. This allows people in a 2nd  or 3rd row to still be in focus and some of the background. The background in these situations is more important to give some context

Single Portraits where the background is important and part of the story f 8 - 11

Animals - same as portraits

Flowers  - for an Arty Look f 2.8 - 5.6. This will give a soft look with many parts out of focus, The closer you are, the more out of focus parts there will be.

Flowers - for a true to life look - f 8 - f16. This will make most of the flower in focus. To avoid the background dominating, have a large distance from the flower to the background if possible. Alternatively, have the flower in the sun and the background in the shade.

Insects and other small creatures - same as flowers

If in doubt
Start at f 8 (compact or bridge cameras f 5.6 or in the middle of the f-stop range). Take your photo, evaluate it, if you need more in focus use a larger f stop. If you want less in focus, use a smaller f stop

Photographing in Difficult SituationsWasp Caterpillar

What do you do when you see an awesome happening - in this case a caterpillar hanging on a silken thread with a beautiful wasp on it and the whole thing is in mid air and blowing in the wind! Not only that, but you have the wrong camera gear to get a good photo!

I had a compact camera with no viewfinder. The auto focus has problems seeing small objects when there is nothing close behind. The camera will try and focus on the background. The light made it difficult to see the back screen properly also.

So ... What do you do?

  1. 1. Focus on your hand
  2. 2. Hold your hand as close to the camera as it will focus, focus on this and keep your finger half pressed on the focus button
  3. 3. With your finger still pressed on the focus button, wait till the subject comes back into range (the breeze was blowing) and estimate the distance that you had pre-focused on and  when it comes into range, take the photo.
  4. 4. Do this several times as your hit rate for good photos may be low.

Some cameras have a focus magnifier that you can put onto a function button on your camera. I put mine (Sony RX100) on the centre button of the control wheel. This allows me to see up close when the subject is in focus. It is still not easy, but it helps.

I ended up with only 2 reasonable photos, but it is better than none! It would have been much easier with my larger Sony A 6500 with 90 mm Macro lens. Having a viewfinder helps a lot too.


Start a Project for Inspiration & LearningImp Blue Horned Leaf Hopper

A great way to get inspiration as well as learn more from observation and discipline is to start a project. It can be as simple as choosing a subject like an interesting shaped rock (large or small), birth & death of a flower, an old wooden shed door etc.

Some ideas on these subjects - take photos at different times of the day, different light like sun, shade, rain, sunset, moonlight. Photograph it at different seasons. Look for creatures or things that land on it. Watch the change over time.
Try taking photos with different lenses from wide to telephoto. Close up sections - even in infra red! Try it from the view of an ant or a bird's eye view.

Tangential Ideas
You can also go off on a tangent and start investigating other things that come into the frame. The project can be as long or as short as you want. Then make a Photobook of your project

Starting a Project - The Life Cycle of the Imperial Blue Butterfly
My Project was to monitor the life cycle of the Imperial Blue butterfly. I discovered the first caterpillars in mid November and wanted to find out how long it would take till the butterflies appeared. The more I photographed & observed, the more questions I found.

Ant Protectors
These caterpillars are looked after by ants but I found on cold mornings - it was a different species of ant. That lead me to proposing a theory that this other ant looks after them at night - so I went to the tree at night and found this was correct. There were many other interesting creatures out at night too. One of them was a leaf hopper bug that was sitting in with the caterpillars and benefiting from the protection of the ants.

Photo Book
I will gather all this info and photos and put a photo book together.


Shooting in the Summer SunSun effects composite

The Summer Solstice is only a month away (21st Dec). This is when the sun is up for the longest time and it is harsh and bright. The hole in the ozone layer means there is less filtration as it reaches us in Victoria and add that to a low humidity and you can get very bright photos, often with faded or washed out looking colours if you aren't careful with your exposure.

How do you avoid this?
The best way is to try to avoid taking photos in the middle of the day between 11 - 3pm. Don't forget, this is daylight saving time. It is equivalent to an hour earlier. Even on an overcast day, the position of the sun influences the image. Top light is still top light.

If you can't avoid it, make sure you turn down your exposure till the colours look better and avoid top light. Try & photograph in the shade. At the edge of shade you can get some nice directional light coming in - but watch out for unwanted reflected colours if you are too close to the sunny edge.
If your subject is small, you can control the top light by putting some shade above it and then add some side light in with a reflector.

Avoiding the Summer Sun
The best way is to photograph is in the early morning or late afternoon when the sun is down low and the light is softer.
Of course, in Summer, that time is very early or quite late.

Dawn till 8 or 9am is best. Then watch your subjects. Look for the best angles of light. As the sun gets higher, you will find that your subjects are no longer visually interesting and the shadows will be in the wrong spots.

If you are out in the environment and are observant, you will notice your subjects start looking better around 4.30pm onwards. Things start looking more 3 dimensional. The shadows are complimentary instead of distracting. From now to sun down and a bit after is the best time.


Photographing DropletsDroplet Composite

After rain, fog or a dewy morning, there are many beautiful sights - especially if the sun comes out.
So how do you capture that image?

Drops on the End of Fine Leaves
For these types of photos, you don't need a close up lens. F stop can be low if they are all on the same plane.
Position yourself so that the droplets shine
Have a simple background. Check through your lens that the background is simple and preferably in shadow so there is contrast with the drops (early morning is best).
Exposure should be slightly darker than normal to highlight the shine on the drops

Drops on Leaves
Once again, angle yourself & camera so the drops sparkle. You may need a close up lens or filter for small drops.
For multiple drops, create a pleasing composition and then make sure your camera is parallel to as many drops as possible so they are all in the same focal plane. Use a large Depth of Field eg f8 and above to get as much as possible in focus.
Focus on the sparkle

Drops that are Very Round
Some surface are so water repellent that the droplet is nearly spherical. eg. Ginko leaves, waterlily and lotus leaves etc. These droplets will now act as a lens allowing you to see the surface magnified and  also, reflections in the drop.
Focus - You need to focus on the reflection or magnified surface - not the edge of the droplet
DoF -Use f11 or more for multiple drops or lower for a single drop.

Your composition is also important to create a pleasing image.


How Big Should I make my Photos?Size vs Distance Composite

Print Your Favourite Photos
The time has come when you finally get around to enlarging your favourite photo to put on a wall or mantelpiece.

How big should it be
There is a rule to follow for the optimum size vs viewing distance. You need to think first about where you intend to put it and then assess where you will stand or sit to see it.
The Rule
If you have to walk up to it to see the detail, it is too small.
If you have to scan your eyes across the image to see its entirety, it is too big.
You need to comfortably see the whole image without moving your head along its length

The Same is True for Books
When I make a Photobook - other than my small test books- I usually want to make it as big as possible. Usually it ends up about 35cm long. It looks great on the computer and then you open the book when you receive it and you are a little disappointed. Assuming the photography is good and the printing is also, the fault will be the viewing distance.
Put it on Display
A large book with 1 photo to a page needs to be on a coffee table with you standing or on an easel.
Good Light
Make sure you can view your book or photo in good light eg opposite a window. Then you will be able to see all the details even in the shadows.

Get your Books out of the Bookcase
One of the reasons for making a book is to get your photos out of your computer. Leaving the book in the bookcase is almost as bad.
Make it Part of your Decor
Find some easels or book stands, put your favourite book on display and turn the page daily. When you finish that one, get your next book or make another one!


Photographing in Blustery WindWind Composite

The problems are obvious - trying to focus correctly on your chosen subject. Then you need to  keep your subject still enough so it is not blurred. Just having a fast shutter speed won’t guarantee a sharp image.
Tip - follow the movement while looking through your camera and watch for the still point when the wind drops. Focus then. Then wait until the subject returns to that point. Take your photo.

Don’t forget to think carefully about what you focus on. This is very important to having the photo look right.

Showing the Effect of Wind
You could use the wind to show what the conditions were like and create a mood. Seas look much better when the wind is driving crashing waves into rocks.

Birds can have ruffled feathers when the wind gets behind them.
People can have hair blowing in the wind and brides can have the veil blowing behind and looking glorious

Try a Movie Clip
Sometimes a short movie of your subject can be more meaningful by showing the movement rather than trying to stop it.

In Conclusion

Think about what you want your image to show  - what feeling you want to put into it.
Use the elements rather than fight them.



What Lens Should I Use?what lens composite

Sometimes it is obvious - If I want to take something far away and I can't walk up to it, then I need a telephoto lens. If I wish to blur the background more, I also use a telephoto lens. Some creatures get spooked if you get too close so once again - use a telephoto lens
Landscapes - If I am taking Landscapes and I want to fit a lot into my image then I need a wide angled lens.
But what about other subjects like portraits, small things, buildings etc?

People - for portrait shots (head & shoulders) or kids you need a short to long telephoto lens 85mm to 200mm or more as this gives a nice face shape & you don't have to get too close. A wide angled lens distorts the face when you stand too close.
For full length or groups you can use a wider lens eg 35 -100mm.

Small subjects need a macro lens so you can get close enough to fill the frame. But macro comes in many focal lengths. A telephoto macro is better when you don't want to (eg scorpion or butterfly) or can't get close (dragonfly on a pond).
Sometimes a wide angled macro is better for seeing into flowers as you can get very close. You can get this with a compact camera.

Buildings also can require a range of different focal lengths. If you can get back far enough, a telephoto lens will avoid a lot of the problems of the edges not being straight. However, if you can't get back a wider lens is required. Use the least wide lens available to avoid distortion and don't have the edge of the building too close to the edge of the frame.

Wide angled Lenses 10 - 35mm
Mid Range (standard) 40 - 70mm
Telephoto lenses 70 - 600 + mm
Zoom lenses have many lenses in one. Check the range to see where yours fits



Never AssumeWild Seas Comp

On our trip to the 12 Apostles, I learnt some things I should never have forgotten. Fortunately, my students benefited from my learning experiences.
The Recci on a Wet Day. We needed to check out a location for the next day's shoot. Several students jumped into the car with me. It was raining, cold, windy and generally dull. Only some of us took our cameras. On arrival, the weather had cleared so we jumped out and walked. Presuming that it would be a brief visit - I only took one lens and no raincoat!
Lesson 1 - Never Assume the Weather will Stay the Same.

The Scenes were Spectacular - crashing waves, rocky escarpments and great light. It also rained again so I got wet and had trouble shielding my camera.
The photography was so good I ran out of battery power - the spare was in the car! I also would have loved a different lens!
Lesson 2 - Always Take All Your Gear including spare batteries - particularly in cold weather as the batteries don't last as long.

Dawn at the 12 Apostles
It was an overcast morning with no wind. We were in place at first light, taking some interesting shots - some facing East and some facing West. I had my camera on a tripod at full height to get some good shots. As more tourists started to arrived I tucked it into a corner and walked over to help some students. At that moment a gust of wind blew my camera & lens over and it landed on the bitumen. The lens was half ripped away from its mount. The camera was OK.
Lesson 3 - Never leave your camera unattended - especially on an extended tripod. Don't assume a gust of wind won't come.
Lesson 4 - Check your Insurance. If your gear is expensive - insure it. My repairs cost $1700


Ways to Avoid a Bad BackgroundBad Background Composite

You have a wonderful subject, the light on it is great, but what an awful background!
What do you do?
Below is a real scenario of my approach to the problem on the Forest Glade Trip.
The subject was statues of Storks in a fountain. They stood out well but the path, concrete rim and a hedge of Variegated Pittosporum behind with the bright light hitting it would not allow a good photo to be taken under any circumstances.

Initial shots taken 11am.
Different attempts at taking shots:
From another direction - not bad
Cropping in - getting better
Getting higher - wrong perspective

Still need to find another angle or different lighting to make this shot worth taking

Later - 11.30am
Reflections more interesting
Still needed to crop
Still need to avoid bad background

Later Still - 1pm

Reflection of statue with wind rippling water to create an art effect

So when you find something that doesn't work, walk around it, look carefully, come back at different times or even in different seasons or weather until something works.


What is in the Background?Background vs time of day Composite 2

Our eyes are very good at ignoring unnecessary details which is good for some things but can be disastrous when you are trying to create a beautiful image.
It is important to 'see' what is behind your subject, what is distracting, whether to move in or zoom or whether to change your camera angle.

Subject Placement
Placing your subject precisely where you want it can be as simple as taking a step sideways or bending down or even having a higher camera angle

Lens Default Position
These days, most cameras have zoom lenses making life easy by carrying fewer lenses. Zoom Lenses default to wide angle. It is important to be aware that the default position on compact cameras or separate zoom lenses is at the wide end. This may not produce the best image and result in you having too much unnecessary detail around your subject. Remember to zoom in to where you think the best image is.

Light Angles Change during the Day
Another thing to be aware of is the light at different times of the day. The series belw shows how light effects the background vs time. You will notice that some of the flowers are easier to see  than others

A Different Approach to MacroDifferent Macro Composite

We all know that macro photography is taking photos of small things. Usually the aim is to have a lens that allows you to focus much closer to your subject than a normal lens.

Getting Close
On a 50mm Macro, this can mean that you can end up a few centimeters away from your subject at its closest point. Fine if it is a flower or a crystal (except if your shadow gets in the way), but what if it is a butterfly or a dangerous creature. Get a longer macro lens you say. Yes, that helps. a 100 or 150mm macro gives you quite a bit more space.

Subject Flew Away!
But what if it is a dragonfly on a pond or it is a very flighty creature?
Use a telephoto lens with close focus!

Recently I was very frustrated trying to photograph Blue banded Bees. They are small and very fast. I had a little success by setting up and waiting at flowers I knew they would come to, but I had much better luck by standing back with a very long lens. The auto focus was able to cope as I was able to choose a better angle with less background.
I was even able to photograph dragonflies on the wing!

Which Lens
I still use my 90mm macro lens in preference as the quality is outstanding, but for certain subjects like butterflies, bees, wasps, dragonflies or close ups of a snake's head, I will use my 150 - 600 mm zoom (225 - 900mm on a crop sensor camera). It is the difference between no photo and a pretty good photo of a very difficult subject.
Many of the latest telephoto zooms have been designed with the ability to focus closer than older ones used to. This is a big plus for me.


Super Moon - Photo TipsSuper Moon Composite

A super moon occurs when the moon is at its closest point to the earth. We see it best as a full moon as it is rising. The moon can look huge as it breaks over the horizon. This year, it will actually be a blue moon as well. This is when you get 2 full moons in a calendar month. It is also a Blood Moon which is when the moon looks red  as the Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon, casting its shadow on the Moon's surface.
To get good shots of both these effects, you need to do your homework.

First, look up what time is moon rise and what angle to the horizon it will rise in. Next find a good location to take the photos. A place up high is good. Not too much on the horizon and not too many power lines (or none!)
Next figure out what settings you will use on your camera BEFORE you go out. Check these settings on the moon a day or two before.
A telephoto lens is preferable, particularly as it gets higher in the sky (200 mm minimum when high). On the horizon, if the moon is very large you may need a smaller telephoto lens. This will depend on how much of the surrounding scenery you want in the shot. Check this out the day before.

Settings Guide (you may vary this)
Exposure - use manual exposure mode if the moon isn't taking up most of the frame. You will want to show detail on the moon, not just a bright blob unless the surrounding landscape is more important than the moon.
f -stop  f 2.8 to 6.3 or higher depending on your lens. Higher if you need more detail
ISO depends how bright the moon is. On the horizon, you may find you can use 400. When it is higher in the sky and red, you may need a higher ISO
Shutter Speed depends on how bright the moon is. As you are on a tripod you can have up to a second or two.. Not much longer as the moon is moving! Check your shot to make sure there is no movement
WB -  Daylight or shade if you want a redder look
Picture Style - Landscape or similar
Focus - Manual. You can try auto. It may work on the horizon when the moon is bright

Finding the moon when it is high in the sky. If you have a zoom lens, start at the wide angle so you can see the moon and then zoom in. Otherwise check your angle to the moon before looking through the viewfinder or back screen and use small movements to re-align.
Your Gear
Tripod, torch (for seeing the settings on your camera), remote control or use your 2 second time delay

These settings are starting points
Try them out on the previous days when the moon is nearly full. Check your image for camera shake and moon movement (if a long shutter speed is used)
Enjoy the challenge! and hope for a cloud free night.


Focus PointsFocus Point Composite

To have your photo look really sharp, even if you have a shallow Depth of Field, you need to select the point where you focus, with care. It must be on the point where you look when you look at an image. This makes the viewer see your subject and then if you have the right composition, follow your visual lines around the image.

Even in a landscape you must focus on something. Landscapes have foregrounds, mid areas and backgrounds. Select your point of focus on something in the foreground or middle area (usually). Remember, where you focus, is where your eye goes to first when you view an image - even if  it has a large Depth of Field.

Creatures with eyes are easy - you focus on the eyes. However, this can be a problem if the creature has a long nose eg. a sheep or if the bird has a tiny head and large chest and wing area. What do you do? You try and arrange yourself & camera at an angle to the subject that has the minimum distance between the eye and the nose. In other words you take the shot with the head partly side on and have a mid to large Depth of Field. If you have to have a small Depth of Field, then you need to have the eye and shoulder or nose on the same plane.

Easy - right! Try doing that with a wild animal. Its patience and luck!

Tricks of LightOne Tree Hill Comp

Light can allow you see things or not see things.
That's easy you say - if it is light you can see, if it is dark you can't. However, it can be more subtle than that.

Light and shade allow you to see shape. If there is no contrast, it is very hard to see things in sharp focus or even define edges or separate objects of the same colour.

A wonderful example showed itself on the last Level 2 Landscape trip. One student showed me a great shot of a lone tree on a hill side. He positioned it perfectly on the rule of thirds, but something wasn't quite right.

The hills in the background formed a dip in the centre of the frame. I suggested he try and get that dip off centre. Whilst watching him  work, some clouds scudded past, highlighting and separating the two hills.

Then the clouds caused the reverse to happen - dark in the foreground with the back hill highlighted.

On consideration, the darker hill in the foreground was the better picture as the eye followed the line up to the dark tree. The other image with the lighter foreground caused your eye to be drawn away from the tree onto the grass.

Looking for Different Shots Different Views Composite

Animal & Insect photography is among my favourite subjects. I love going to any of the Zoos to see and practice photographing animals. They give you a great opportunity to take some really wonderful shots if you take the time and have patience.
After you have got all the standard shots, and you are good at getting exposures right, the correct focus and your framing is good, it is time to take the next step - photos with expression.
To get the best chance of getting expressions, a long telephoto or telephoto zoom is desirable. I used a Tamron 150 - 600 mm zoom for these shots. I also used a monopod, braced against my waist or dropped to ground level.
Capturing animals showing behaviour or having interesting expressions takes more time. It is best to plan your day to get there before the crowds. Learn the animals’ behaviour in certain weather conditions. Eg the lemurs all huddle up in the sun or their nests if it is cold.
Come back later if the animals are asleep. They could well be out on your way back.
Watch them while they are eating or interacting with other animals. Wait for interesting expressions. Use different angles. Wait for a bird to flap its wings or dive in the water.
Sunny Days - If you can go on a sunny day after a cold spell, all the animals will be out and active. However, you will have to watch out for mottled light ruining your shot. Go early or late to minimize that.
Be prepared to visit often. Every time you go, you will find something different.


Raw vs JPegs vs Lensessmall bird lens issues

Raw vs JPegs vs Lenses
I made an interesting discovery the other day. It is not always better to shoot Raw!!

I have been a Raw convert for many years now because there is more detail stored in the Raw file than in a JPeg, and you can non destructively edit it afterwards.
The dilemma I found was when I used a kit lens with my Sony A 6000. When I first used this particular lens, shooting JPegs, I found it very sharp and bright. Later, I thought the lens had deteriorated somewhat and when I photographed the tiny bird above, I was disappointed with the sharpness of the bird (I know I got it right!). So I did some thinking and remembering of some articles I had read.

The Reason
Some modern cameras use some very powerful Algorithms to sharpen images and correct lens aberrations of kit lenses and some other low cost, lenses to keep the price and weight down among other things. These Algorithms can only be applied when using JPegs. Hence my early photos were great when I used JPegs and when I swapped to Raw the 'punch' wasn't there.
Trying to Sharpen them in Post Production helped but didn't match the targeted effect from in camera.
This problem does not occur with my high grade lenses - they are as sharp as a tack and have exceptional resolution and colour tone.

If you are using kit lenses on modern cameras and wish to start using Raw - shoot both JPeg and Raw together and compare your images after you have done your Raw processing. They might show a difference, they may not. If you know what is causing the effects, you can then make informed choices.

Photographing Small Fast Flying Birds

fast flying birds
Tiny birds move fast to avoid predators and are almost impossible to photograph. Certainly, don't expect to be lucky to get a shot as you are just walking past one.

So how do you get the photo?
First you need to observe the bird. Find out where it feeds, what it feeds on and what times of the day it feeds also.
Honey eaters drink nectar so will be on bushes or plants with plenty of tubular flowers. At Werribbee Zoo last week, the Red Hot Pokers had Red Wattle Birds and New Holland Honeyeaters drinking nectar from the flowers. Although they moved fast, they did stop to drink.
Then if you wait, they might fly in and look.
Other birds might eat seeds, meal worms, moths and Birds of Prey would love a dead rat!

Fast Flying Birds
Another way is to put out a perch for them to alight on so they can check for predators etc. You can add some food on that for further enticement. Then have your camera ready and wait.

A long Telephoto lens is essential so you can be at a distance. 200mm - 400mm or more are useful lens lengths. Many of you would have that on your larger zoom lenses.
For the shyer birds, you may have to put your camera on a tripod, focus on the branch (manual focus) and trigger the camera using a wireless remote control. This is especially important for birds of prey as they have excellent eyesight. One I was trying to photograph even looked into the doorway where I was hiding and then flew off!

You need to have a lot of patience and persistence.


What is Bokeh?bokeh illustration

Bokeh is the out of focus highlights in your image. They take on the shape of the diaphragm or blades in your lens. This results in the shape of the circles of light changing from round to hexagonal (or similar) in shape when you change your f-stop. A small f stop like f 2.8 will give an almost smooth round circle. A larger f-stop like f 8 will give a more defined shape of the lens blades. If there are 6 blades then it will be a hexagon, if there are 9 blades then it will have a shape showing the 9 sides. See below (the coloured spots are reflections).

Lens Design
Lens design also contributes to the shape of these highlights. The optimum shape is a very smooth circle when your lens is wide open. It is usually characterised by a very wide aperture like f2.8 or lower and often more than six lens blades.

A high quality lens may still have a smooth circle at some higher f-stops too.

Strange Shaped Bokeh
The strangest bokeh is characteriesd by a mirror lens. This lens has a mirror in it to bend the light which allows a long focal length lens to be made into a smaller body. It is then much lighter and smaller. However, there is a small disc in the front centre of the lens that ends up causing bokeh to be shaped like donuts!

There is also a lens that has been designed to have bokeh that look like bubbles!
If you don't have any bright spots of light in your image, then you won't have any highlights or bokeh.

Seeing Lightseeing light composite

Many people see without 'Seeing'. It takes time, experience, observation, practice and if you are lucky - someone to show you the quality of light and how to use it for different subjects.
You have to learn to see the angle of light, whether it is bright or contrasty light, soft light, heavy light, bright shade or dead light. Then you need to learn which light shows up your subject to its best or how you want the final picture to look. Also - How does it make you feel!

Some Rules of Thumb

  • Simple subjects can look good with high contrast light
  • Complex subjects look better with softer or low contrast light- eg cloudy day

The aim is to choose the type of light to allow your subject to be easily seen. If you have to search the picture to find out what the subject is - the light is wrong

Eg. a wide view of a garden with lots of flowers and shrubs.
Full Sun - Wrong Light. The sun creates many shadows and highlights, creating a confusing scene.
Light Cloud - Better Light. Allows the colours and flowers to be easily seen. no strong shadows creating confusion.
Heavy Cloud - OK, but may not be good. Plants can be easily seen, but the image may lack 'life'

Next time you go out to photograph - look closely at the light and see how it effects your subject. Try squinting your eyes to get a better impression. Remember, you see in 3 dimensions, your image will end up as 2 dimensions.

Page 1 of 3


  03 9877 9266
  or 0435 377 065

APP Licentiate Sm
A licentiate is a person who has a formal attestation of professional competence, borne from experience, to not only practice a profession, but also to teach, educate and mentor others in the profession.

Back to top